Friday, April 27, 2007

History of Geography

The fundamentals of geography can be traced to the prehistoric cultures, such as the ancient, medieval, and early modern Chinese. The Greeks, who were the first to discover geography as both art and science, achieved this through Cartography, Philosophy, and Literature, or through Mathematics. There is some dispute about who was the first person to assert that the Earth is spherical in shape, with the praise going either to Parmenides or Pythagoras. Anaxagoras was able to show that the profile of the Earth was circular by explaining eclipses. However, he still believed that the Earth was a flat disk, as did many of his contemporaries. One of the first estimates of the radius of the Earth was made by Eratosthenes.

The first rigorous system of latitude and longitude lines is credited to Hipparchus. He employed a sexagesimal system that was derived from Babylonian mathematics. The parallels and meridians were sub-divided into 360°, with each degree further subdivided 60′ (minutes). To measure the longitude at different location on Earth, he suggested using eclipses to determine the relative difference in time.

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Tuesday, April 24, 2007

Water Resources

Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. It is important because it is needed for life to exist. Many uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. Practically all of these human uses require fresh water. Only 2.7% of water on the Earth is fresh water, and over two thirds of this is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps. Water demand already exceeds supply in many parts of the world, and many more areas are likely to experience this disproportion in the near future. The framework for allocating water resources to water users (where such a framework exists) is known as water rights.

Uses of fresh water can be classified as consumptive and non-consumptive (sometimes called "renewable"). A use of water is consumptive if that water is not straight away available for another use. Losses to sub-surface seepage and evaporation are considered consumptive, as is water incorporated into a product (such as farm produce). Water that can be treated and returned as surface water, such as sewage, is generally considered non-consumptive if that water can be put to additional use.

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Tuesday, April 03, 2007


A comedian, or comic, is an entertainer who amuses an audience by makes them laugh. This might be through jokes or amusing situations, or acting the fool, as in slapstick, or employing prop comedy. A female comedian may be known as a comedienne even though this usage has been deprecated in recent years. A comedian who stands and addresses an audience frankly is called a stand-up comedian.

Since the mid-1980s, a new wave of comedy, called optionally comedy, has been gaining popularity and delighting audiences with its offbeat style. This normally involves more experiential, or observational, exposure to get a laugh. Famous comedians often overstep the mark of what the public perceive as adequate, such as the remarks made by Billy Connolly about the killing of Ken Bigley.Formats of a comedian's showare flexible and often depend on the type of comedy. Some comedians such as Brian Figarol speak about their own day to day lives, while others like Frank Skinner sing humorous songs.

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