Wednesday, January 31, 2007


In marginalist economic theory, the price level is determined by the marginal cost and marginal utility. The price of all goods will be the cost of making the last one that people will purchase, and the price of all the employees in a company will be the cost of hiring the last one the business needs. Marginalism looks at decisions based on "the margins", what the cost to produce the next unit is, versus how much it is expected to return in profit. When the marginal return of an action reaches zero, the action stops. Marginal utility is how much more happiness or use a person receives from a purchase in contrast with buying less. Marginal rewards are often subject to diminishing returns: Less reward is obtained from more production or consumption. For example, the 10th bar of chocolate that a person consumes does not taste as good as the first, and so brings less marginal utility.Marginalism became increasingly important in economic theory in the late 19th century, and is a tool which is used to analyze how economic systems will react. Marginal cost of production divides costs into "fixed" costs which must be paid regardless of how many of a commodity are produced, and "variable costs". The marginal cost is the variable cost of the last unit. Marginalism states that when the profit from the next unit will be zero, that unit will not be produced. This is often termed the marginal revolution in economic thought.

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Thursday, January 25, 2007


Withernsea, population around 4000, is a seaside resort town in the East Riding of Yorkshire which forms the focal point for a wider community of small villages in Holderness. Its most famous landmark is the white inland lighthouse, standing around 38 metres above Hull Road. The lighthouse, no longer active, now houses a museum to 1950s actress Kay Kendall who was born in the town.
Like many seaside resorts, Withernsea has a wide promenade which reaches north and south from Pier Towers, historic entrance to a rather unlucky 364 metre long pier, built in 1877 at a cost of £12,000. The pier was gradually reduced in length by consecutive impacts with local seacraft, colliding with the Saffron in 1880 before being smashed by an unnamed ship in 1888, again by a Grimsby fishing boat and again by the Henry Parr in 1903, leaving the once grand pier with a mere 15 metres of sorry wood and steel. Town planners decided to remove the final section during construction of sea defences during this period.
Withernsea, like many British resorts, has suffered from a decline in the number of visiting holidaymakers over the last decades of the 20th century. The once sparkling neon lights of the numerous amusement arcades lining the stretch behind Queen Street now seem decrepit and are a magnet for the town's undesirables and burgeoning drug problem. Even the once popular Teddy's nightclub is now renamed — with no reference to the naughty postcard humour of old.
The town is also home to a nine-hole golf course, a large school complex and an RNLI lifeboat museum. There are several miles of pebble beaches over which large clay cliffs loom. Coastal erosion is a significant problem for coastal villages in the area, and much of the local council's money has been spent on upgrading the town's sea defences: huge stone boulders now protect the sea wall.

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Friday, January 19, 2007

Military decoration

A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. They are designed to be worn on military uniform.

Civil decorations awarded to military personnel should not be considered military decorations, although some orders of chivalry have civil and military divisions. Decorations received by police and fire brigade personnel may sometimes be considered alongside military decorations, on which they may be modelled, although they are strictly not military awards.

Decorations have been known since ancient times. Celts and Romans wore a torc, Dayaks wore and still wear tattoos, etc. Necklaces and bracelets were given during the early middle Ages, evolving into richly jewelled big necklaces, often with a pendant attached.

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Thursday, January 11, 2007

Chinese White Dolphin

The Chinese White Dolphin also called Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin, is a subspecies of the Humpback dolphin and is one of eighty cetacean species. The adult dolphin is usually white or grey in colour. The population along the Chinese coast is unique in that they exhibit a pink-coloured skin. This colour of the skin is not a result of colour pigmentation, but is actually from blood vessels used for thermoregulation to prevent overheating during exertion. The adult's body length is about 220 - 250 centimeters and the infant's body length is about 1 meter. The average weight of an adult is around 150 to 230 kilograms.

The Indo-Pacific dolphins can be found throughout Southeast Asia, and they breed from South Africa to Australia. There are two subspecies, with Sumatra, one of the Indonesian islands, as the dividing line between the Chinese and the Western subspecies, Sousa chinensis plumbea.The two subspecies differ in color and size of their dorsal fin.The subspecies found in Southeast Asia has pinkish white skin and a larger dorsal fin but lacks the fatty hump of its South African and Australian counterparts.

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Friday, January 05, 2007

Anatomical basics of the human lip

One differentiates between the Upper and lower lip. The lower lip is usually somewhat larger. The border between the lips and the surrounding skin is referred to as the vermilion border, or simply the vermilion. The vertical groove on the upper lip is known as the philtrum.
The skin of the lip, with three to five cellular layers, is very thin compared to typical face skin, having up to 16 layers. With light skin color, the lip skin contains no melanocyte. Because of this, the blood vessels appear through the skin of the lips, which leads to their notable red coloring. With darker skin color this effect is less prominent, as in this case the skin of the lips contains more melanin and thus is visually thicker.
The lip skin is not hairy and does not have sweat glands or sebaceous glands. Therefore, it does not have the usual protection layer of sweat and body oils which keep the skin smooth, kill pathogens, and regulate warmth. For these reasons, the lips dry out faster and become chapped more easily.

Adult Halloween Costumes, Fantasy Football

Monday, January 01, 2007

In geography

Geographical space is called land, and has a relation to ownership. While some cultures assert the rights of the individual in terms of ownership, other cultures will identify with a communal approach to land ownership, while still other cultures, rather than asserting ownership rights to land, invert the relationship and consider that they are in fact owned by the land. Spatial planning is a method of regulating the use of space at land-level, with decisions made at regional, national and international levels. Space can also impact on human and cultural behaviour, being an important factor in architecture, where it will impact on the design of buildings and structures, and on farming.
Ownership of space is not restricted to land. Ownership of airspace and of waters is decided internationally. Other forms of ownership have been recently asserted to other spaces — for example to the radio bands of the electromagnetic spectrum or to cyberspace.
Public space is a term used to define areas of land is collectively owned by the community, and managed in their name by delegated authorities. Such spaces are open to all, while private property is the land owned by an individual or company, for their own use and pleasure.
Abstract space is a term used in geography to refer to a hypothetical space characterized by complete homogeneity. When modeling activity or behavior, it is a conceptual tool used to limit extraneous variables such as terrain.

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